An Agreement on the Status of the Armed Forces (SOFA) is an agreement between a host country and a foreign nation that deploys military forces in that country. CANPAÉs are often included with other types of military agreements as part of a comprehensive security agreement. A CANAPÉ is not a safety device; it establishes the rights and privileges of foreign staff in a host country in order to support the greater security regime.  Under international law, a force status agreement differs from military occupation. The text of this agreement can be accessed georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/11/20071126-11.html (the “declaration of principle”). A historical perspective on U.S. operations in Iraq and issues related to Iraqi governance and security can be found in the report CRS RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by [author name scrubbed] and CRS Report RL33793, Iraq: Regional Outlook and U.S. Policy, coordinated by [author name scrubbed]. The security and strategic framework agreements came into force on 1 January 2009 following an exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Iraq. Although the agreements had to be approved at several levels by the Iraqi government, the Bush administration did not submit the agreements to the Senate for consultation and approval in the form of a contract or a request for legal approval by Congress. 1954: Agreement on the status of an advisory group for military aid in accordance with paragraph 1, point a), of the NATO agreement on the status of the armed forces For example, the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) was a bilateral training program established in 1997 by the Clinton administration. The United States closed SOFA with many African countries specifically dealing with ACRI. Each of the sofas contained a language that limited the agreements to U.S.
personnel who were temporarily in the country for ACRI or other activities, as agreed by the countries. Although the agreement may have been registered as a result of ACRI, the language that allows other activities allows, as agreed between the two countries, that SOFA remains in force, even though ACRI does not currently exist. 1951: Appendix on the Status of United States Personnel and Assets Military or Civilian personnel seconded by EU institutions may possess and carry weapons in accordance with Article 13 when working with EUROPEAN Union staffs or armed forces in the preparation and execution of Article 17 tasks, 2, of the EU Treaty, including exercises, or when they take part in missions related to these tasks. The United States has closed SOFA with countries to support specific activities or exercises. In general, these agreements are concluded in support of a joint military exercise or humanitarian initiative. SOFA will contain a language that limits the scope of the agreement to specific activity, but there is sometimes the language that extends the agreement to other activities, as agreed by both countries. Agreements are not based on a treaty or a measure of Congress; Rather, they are exclusive executive agreements. 1956: Agreement on the status of US forces in Greece in 1954: agreement on the deployment of US forces in the Dutch agreement between European Union member states on the status of military and civilian personnel, which is seconded to the institutions of the European Union, the headquarters and the armed forces which can be made available to the European Union in the context of the preparation and execution of the tasks covered by Article 17, paragraph 2, of the Treaty on the European Union, including exercises, and military and civilian personnel from the Member States made available to the European Union to act in this context (EU SOFA) SOFS are generally not allowed to authorize military operations or missions by the United States.